Limnological Associates, LLC

    SELECTED AQUACULTURE EXPERIENCE

SEAFOOD MARKET



                   TRIPLOIDY INDUCTION OF GIANT TIGER PRAWN (Penaeus
                monodon) FOR INCREASED VALUE AND SECURITY  (2001)
                    Hawaii Ocean Science & Technology Park, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii
               Client:  High Health Aquaculture, Inc. and National Science
                     Foundation

                        This Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I research
                 project will  establish  reliable technology to mass-produce polyploid
                 broodstock and seedstock of giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), and
                 eventually other shrimp species using a new, automated polyploid
                 induction system.  Sale of sterile, triploid postlarval shrimp seed  will:
                 protect the breeder’s investments in genetic selection and stock
                 improvement; protect genetic makeup of wild shrimp stocks from
                 escapement of domestic strains; and protect the enviroment from
                 establishment of exotic shrimp species.  In addition, triploid shrimp may
                 grow substantially faster than normal,  diploid shrimp.  I am assisting
                 HHA with polyploidy induction and experimental designs to demonstrate
                 culture performances.
 
 

                 SOME POND AQUACULTURE CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE
                 GREATER NOAKHALI AQUACULTURE EXTENSION
                 PROJECT (GNAEP), BANGLADESH (1999)
                                          Noakhali, Bangladesh
                Client:  Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA),
                                         Dhaka, BANGLADESH

                                Typical Barrow Pit Pond                                        Pond Cultured Fish

Large Cultured Fish

                       This development project’s main objective was to increase
                  sustainable and economically viable aquaculture production from
                  the large number of omnipresent freshwater ponds in Bangladesh.
                  These ponds range in size from a few square meters to several
                  hectares (ha). Total pond numbers in Bangladesh probably range
                  between 1.3 and 1.8 million.  Virtually all of these ponds are barrow
                  pit ponds that are the result of house and road construction.  This
                  construction requires excavation of clay soils for building on elevated
                  platforms to avoid annual flooding in  Bangladesh.  More than 60%
                  of the country floods areas to the north.  During May 1999, I
                  conducted a tour of fishponds, hatcheries,  markets and other
                  locations in Noakhali, Lakshmipur and Feni Districts;  and I
                  discussed project goals and plans with program staff, Department of
                  Fishery personnel, and with other people.  I drafted a set of
                  recommendations for monitoring pond water quality, conducting
                  appropriate fish culture trials, and otherwise meeting project goals.

                                            Special Goldfish                                        Negotiating the Price
 
 

  Chinese Carp in Bangladesh




                 COMMERCIAL CULTURE OF STRIPED SNAKEHEAD
             (Channa  striatus): CAPTIVE MATURATION AND
                 SPAWNING (1998)
                                    Waialua, Hawaii
                 Clients:  Hawaii Fish Company and USDA/SBIR Program

                                               Snakehead Fish                                 Snakehead Fish at Market

                       One of the main goals of this research was to determine feasibility
                  of captive maturation and spawning of striped snakehead fish in Hawaii
                  during their normal spawning season.  I provided assistance to Hawaii
                  Fish Co. with the experimental design, and with other aspects of proposal
                  and report preparations.  Major accomplishments included: demonstrations
                  that maturation of captive broodstock in Hawaii can occur in water
                  temperatures ranging from 21-29C; and successful maturation and
                  spawning of captive snakehead broodstock in excess of 85% without use
                  of chronic hormone treatments.   These accomplishments are a prelude to
                  successfully development of economically viable culture of this food
                  fish species in Hawaii.
 
 

                  A NEW, MODULAR IMPELLOR FOR AQUACULTURE
                PADDLEWHEEL AERATORS (1993-1997)
                                      Kapaau, Big Island, Hawaii
                Clients:  STO Design Group and USDA SBIR Program

                              Paddlewheel Impeller Tank Test                             Changing Test  Impeller

Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen during Tank Test

                        The most commonly used, and the most efficient aeration devices
                 for aquaculture pond aeration are paddlewheel aerators.  The primary
                 markets for these aerators are for 5- to 10-HP aerators in the U.S.
                 catfish industry, and for 1- to 2-HP aerators in the Asian marine shrimp
                 culture industry, with the latter accounting for the largest market share.
                 Shrimp pond aerator impellers are mostly of one standard design, which
                 has changed little over the years.  The goal of this project was to develop
                 a superior impeller for small aerators based on a spiral blade design
                 developed for large aerators in the U.S. catfish industry.  We succeeded
                 in developing such an impeller, which was about 30% more efficient
                 than the standard design for small aerators.  However, it was also more
                 complicated and expensive to manufacture and has not yet found its way
                 into the marketplace.  We also demonstrated that oxygen transfer by
                 paddlewheels is more efficient in saline water than in freshwater
                 (see Fast et al. 1999).
 
 

                  EVALUATION OF PEARL PRODUCTION USING VAPOR
                 COATED NUCLEI IN PEARL OYSTERS (2000)
                              La Paz, Baja California, Mexico
                  Clients:  Island Pearls, LLC, LaJolla, California, Hubbs
                              Sea World, San Diego, and the McBean Foundation.

                       Virtually all pearls produced and marketed worldwide are the
                  products of cultured pearl technologies.  In almost all cases, this
                  involves artificially implanting oysters, or some other mollusk with
                  a calcareous bead or “nucleus,” on which the mollusk deposits a
                  lustrous layer of nacre.  The sources of most calcareous nuclei are
                  the shells of several rare, endangered and/or threatened freshwater
                  mussel species in Mississippi River tributaries. Only 10% of all
                  nuclei produced are rated Grade #1 (pure white), while 90% of the
                  nuclei are lower valued grades. Use of lower grades lengthens the
                  culture period, increases culture costs, and puts more pressure on
                  mussel shell resources.  Island Pearls is developing the concept of
                  vapor coating lower grade pearl nuclei with precious metals as a
                  means of upgrading these nuclei.  Their objective is to establish a
                  world market for vapor coated nuclei which they would produce
                  from lower grade nuclei.  I assisted them with this work by helping
                  design an experimental protocol for comparing pearl quality and
                  culture times using different nucleus coatings.
 
 

                  FURTHER ASSESSMENTS AND COMMENTS ON
                  CONDITIONS AT SEA FRESH  FARM, GENERAL SANTOS
                  CITY, THE PHILIPPINES
                                General Santos City, Mindanao, the Philippines
                  Client: Dole Seafood, Manila, the Philippines

                                               Main Seawater Supply Canal, Sea Fresh Farm, Dole
                                                     Seafoods, General Santos City, Philippines

Dr. Alec Forbes Checking the ponds

                       I conducted a site visit and assessment of growout culture
                  problems at Dole’s shrimp farm near General Santos City.  The
                  farm had serious problems with gradual shrimp mortality during pond
                  growout, and very low pond yields. The cause of this problem was
                  not determined definitively, but was probably related to soil chemistry
                  problems and/or with use of agricultural chemicals (pesticides,
                  fungicides, etc.) on bananas and other agricultural crops in the
                  neighborhood of the farm.
 
 

                  INCREASING AQUACULTURE POND PRODUCTION
                  THROUGH INNOVATIVE ARTIFICIAL AERATION/
                  CIRCULATION (1982-87)
                                   Islands of Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii
                  Clients:  Seaco, Inc., Kailua, Hawaii and NSF SBIR Program

                       The objective of this project was to design, build and test
                  aeration/circulation devices in commercial prawn ponds.  We
                  conducted this work in both freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium
                  rosenbergii) and brackishwater shrimp (Penaeus spp.) ponds.
                  Four devices were tested and new management techniques were
                  devised.  I prepared both the Phase I and II research proposals
                  for SEACO, and assisted with data analyses and report preparations.
 
 

                  DEVELOPMENT OF PRAWN POND MANAGEMENT
                  PRACTICES IN JAVA, REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA (1983).
                                  Yogjakarta and East Java, Indonesia
                  Client:  U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID),
                                  Jakarta, Indonesia.

                       As part of USAID’s small-scale fisheries project in Central Java,
                  I worked with Dr. James McVey to assess and develop techniques
                  for pond culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
                  in traditional freshwater fishponds. We also developed special pond
                  aeration/circulation devices operated by peddle power, motorcycles
                  and small engines.  I worked closely with USAID, Indonesian
                  Department of Fisheries, and the consulting firm of Dian Desa.
 
 

                  REVIEW WITH RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING
                  STATUS OF SALMOND AQUACULTURE WITHIN THE
                  STATE OF CALIFORNIA (1979).
                                   San Diego, California
                  Client:  Living Marine Resources, San Diego and State
                                    of California.

                       This study reviewed aquaculture options and development
                  within the State of California.  The study was commissioned by
                  the state legislature.  The main purpose of the study was to lay
                  the groundwork for a more viable aquaculture industry in the state.
                  I prepared a report with recommendations.
 
 

                  DEVELOPMENT OF A MASTER PLAN FOR SHRIMP
                  POND DESIGN AND  CULTURE FOR AQUASTAR,
                  THAILAND (1988).
                                Bangkok and Renote, Thailand
               Client:  Freeman Fox/Inercon Consulting Engineers,
                                 Bangkok, Thailand

                       I assisted with the design of intensive growout systems for
                  marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) at Aquastar, Inc., Thailand,
                  and at another small farm operated by the client company.
 
 

                   EVALUATION OF AERATION EFFICIENCY AND
                   PERFORMANCE OF AN ASPIRATING POND
                   AERATOR (1987-88).
                                     Kaneohe, Hawaii
                   Client:  Aeration Industries, Chaska, Minnesota

                        We conducted a number of aeration efficiency tests on the
                   aspirating aerator manufactured by Aeration Industries.  We
                   compared the operation of these aerators in test tanks, large ponds
                   and in waters of different salinity. We were especially interested in
                   the operation of these aerators for intensive culture of marine shrimp.
 
 
 

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fish culture, shrimp culture, marine shrimp, artificial aeration, pond aerator, Penaeus monodon, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, pond aquaculture, aquaculture
fish culture, shrimp culture, marine shrimp, artificial aeration, pond aerator, Penaeus monodon, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, pond aquaculture, aquaculture
fish culture, shrimp culture, marine shrimp, artificial aeration, pond aerator, Penaeus monodon, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, pond aquaculture, aquaculture
fish culture, shrimp culture, marine shrimp, artificial aeration, pond aerator, Penaeus monodon, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, pond aquaculture, aquaculture